The Philea Virtual Library

The Philea Virtual Library includes over 1,000 free-to-download publications from a range of organisations and publishers on the topics of philanthropy, the management of foundations and the areas they are involved in and support. As a Philea member you can send us your publications for inclusion in the library which will also be added to the global IssueLab network where they will be made available to an extended audience, including users of Worldcat, the global catalogue used by tens of thousands of libraries. For questions or assistance, please contact the Philea Virtual Library.
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The State of Global Giving by U.S. Foundations: 2022 Edition

September 20, 2022

For 25 years, the Council on Foundations and Candid have partnered on studies of globally focused giving by U.S. foundations. The new edition of The State of Global Giving by U.S. Foundations dives into 2016-2019 data to provide the latest perspective on how the nation's foundations are supporting critical efforts to improve health outcomes, address climate change, offer access to education, ensure human rights, and engage with a wide array of other global priorities. Through interviews with a selection of global funders, Global Giving also offers insights on how foundations are addressing the critical challenges of our time and where they see signs of optimism and opportunity going forward.Key Report FindingsU.S. private and community foundations included in Candid's Foundation 1000 dataset awarded globally focused grants totaling $8 billion in 2019—close to four times the approximately $2.2 billion awarded in 2002.Health accounted for 49 percent of global grant dollars.The largest shares of funding focused on the Sub-Saharan Africa (25.1%) and Asia & Pacific (17.7%) regions.Among the many issue areas supported by foundations, human rights has realized the fastest growth in global support in recent years. In the 2016-2019 period, human rights reached 11 percent of global foundation grant dollars, up from less than 7 percent in the 2011-2015 period.Roughly 13 percent of U.S. foundations' global grant dollars went directly to organizations based in the country where programs were implemented in the 2016-2019 period, up marginally from approximately 12 percent in the 2011-2015 period.Funding by Foundation 1000 foundations for efforts to counter or mitigate the impact of climate change in the United States and globally totaled nearly $1.8 billion in the 2016-2019 period, up from $1.3 billion in the 2011-2015 period.The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation accounted for 44% of global giving by U.S. foundations from 2016 to 2019.

Foundation Sector, History and Analysis

International Giving by U.S. Community Foundations: Local Communities with Global Reach

July 13, 2017

This report, a joint effort by the Council on Foundations and Foundation Center, examines the current state and recent trends in international giving and engagement by large U.S. community foundations. The first-ever analysis of this type suggests that many community foundations are beginning to adopt a broader, more nuanced definition of "community" than they have in the past.The report documents how funds channeled from U.S. community foundations support international programs and recipients and highlights five U.S. community foundations and their approaches to global engagement and international grantmaking. For this report, we analyzed all the international grants made by U.S. community foundations included in Foundation Center's set of 1,000 of the largest U.S. Foundations from 2011 to 2014, which included 10,533 grants worth $697 million.

Community Philanthropy; International Affairs, Global Challenges

Evaluation in Philanthropy: Perspectives From the Field

April 3, 2017

This publication offers a brief overview of how grantmakers are looking at evaluation through an organizational learning and effectiveness lens. It is based on a review of the current literature on evaluation and learning, outreach to grantmakers that have made these activities a priority and the work of GEO and the Council to raise this issue more prominently among their memberships. Many of these grantmakers are testing new approaches to gathering and sharing information about their work and the work of their grantees. We share the learning and evaluation stories of 19 GEO members in the pages that follow.

Ethical issues and Good Practices

From Global Goals to Local Impact: How Philanthropy Can Help Achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals in the U.S.

July 20, 2016

The universal nature of the SDGs reflects the unprecedented political and moral consensus behind them—not just among member states, but within and across them. For its part, the United States played an essential, active role in developing the SDGs, as did the philanthropic community. Nearly 80,000 Americans completed the MyWorld survey, many doing so after learning about the portal participating in a local meeting organized by the U.N. Foundation in partnership with UNA-USA.

International Affairs, Global Challenges; Philanthropy, Theory, Philosophy and History

10 Things Every New Foundation Board Member Should Know

December 1, 2013

Beyond its economic impact, the philanthropic sector plays a critical social and cultural role in the U.S. and worldwide. Organized for public benefit, foundations make considerable invest-ments in social innovation and calculated risk taking. Foundations advocate for social oppor-tunity, support research and science, build the capacity of public charities, create educational opportunities, provide essential human services, and foster cultural expression -- along with many other social benefits. The federal government recognized the social value of charitable giving and created incentives in the tax code to support activities that did not receive public money.The Council on Foundations, in collaboration with BoardSource, has produced an easy-to-use guide for new foundation board members. This publication is designed as a basic guide for new foundation board members, providing an introduction to tools and knowledge essential in your first years of service on the board of a foundation. The guide contains information, advice, vetted best practices, and sets of questions a new board member might ask in an orientation or as their service on the board begins.

Governance, Boards and Strategy

Principles of Accountability for International Philanthropy

May 1, 2007

The "Principles of Accountability for International Philanthropy", a joint initiative of the European Foundation Centre (EFC) and the US Council on Foundations (COF), aims to guide and support funders in making better decisions in pursuing their international missions and objectives, and to provide a framework that will encourage and assist more foundations to get involved internationally. They are the result of a two-year collaborative effort of a 14-member EFC-COF working group, comprising foundations and corporate donors of varying philanthropic styles, experience, traditions, asset and expenditure bases, programmatic interests and geographic areas of activity.

Ethical issues and Good Practices; International Affairs, Global Challenges

Grantmaking in China

January 1, 2006

This article is based on the conference "China: Examining the Philanthropic Landscape", held in New York on November 2005. The articles attempts to distill similar pointers offered by panelists on issues that are unique to grantmaking in China. Resources to learn more about the legal and regulatory climate for grantmaking in China are listed at the end of the article.

Grantmaking and Programme Management; Legislation and Taxation

Conflicts of Interest: Safeguarding Your Foundation

September 7, 2005

This statement of principles and practices outlines measures that foundations may take to improve transparency and accountability in finance, governance and grantmaking. Aimed at the members of the Council on Foundations, it is designed to encourage greater compliance and adherence to legal and expected standards of accountability. Resources include articles by the Council on Foundations and sample conflict of interest policies for community foundations, private foundations and corporate giving programs.

Ethical issues and Good Practices; Governance, Boards and Strategy

Council On Foundations. Stewardship Principles For Independent Foundations: Draft: August 2, 2005

August 1, 2005

Through their philanthropy, foundations aspire to achieve a lasting and positive impact on society. This document describes how independent foundations can reflect fundamental values like honesty, integrity, openness and fairness in their board governance, management, grantmaking and charitable activities.

Ethical issues and Good Practices

Council On Foundations. Statement of Ethical Principles

June 28, 2005

This statement, approved on June 28, 2005, outlines the ethical principles to be followed by the Council on Foundations and its members, regarding foundations' mission, stewardship, accountability and transparency, diversity and inclusiveness, governance and respect.

Ethical issues and Good Practices

Principles of International Charity: Developed by the Treasury Guidelines Working Group of Charitable Sector Organizations and Advisors

March 1, 2005

These principles reflect the collective efforts of a broadly representative working group of charitable organizations, mostly U.S.-based and nearly all engaged in international charitable activities. This work was undertaken after the U.S. Treasury Department's proposed guidelines in November 2002 that were widely rejected as impracticable and as impeding further international charitable activities. As a result, the Treasury Department in November 2004 invited charitable organizations to develop their own proposals; this document responds to this invitation.

Ethical issues and Good Practices

Stewardship Principles for Corporate Grantmakers

September 1, 2004

The Stewardship Principles and Options to Strengthen Performance are goals toward which to strive. They correspond to an array of philosophical and practical issues faced by all companies - those with foundations and those with direct giving programs. With this document as a framework, corporate grantmaking governing bodies and staff can discuss issues before they arise, enabling them to develop thoughtful policy and practice that improve over time.

Corporate Philanthropy; Ethical issues and Good Practices

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